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有读书笔记The trapped human experiment

唐唐 添加于 2011-9-15 01:14 | 2055 次阅读 | 0 个评论
  •  作 者

    Huo R, Agapiou A, Bocos-Bintintan V, Brown LJ, Burns C, Creaser CS, Devenport NA, Gao-Lau B, Guallar-Hoyas C, Hildebrand L, Malkar A, Martin HJ, Moll VH, Patel P, Ratiu A, Reynolds JC, Sielemann S, Slodzynski R, Statheropoulos M, Turner MA, Vautz W, Wright VE, Thomas CLP
  •  摘 要

    This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO2 and O2 monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO2, NH3 and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH3 channel was the suppression of NH3 during those periods when the participants slept, and this will be the subject of further study, as will be the detailed analysis of the casualty detection data obtained from the seven instruments used.
  •  详细资料

    • 文献种类: Journal Article
    • 期刊名称: Journal of Breath Research
    • 期刊缩写: J. Breath Res.
    • 期卷页: 2011  5 4 046006
    • ISBN: 1752-7155
  • 学科领域 工程技术 » 机械工程

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    工程学综合  
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    科学家发明寻找废墟幸存者探测器
    法新社巴黎9月12日电:科学家周日称,他们发明了一种能够探测呼吸和流汗的探测器,这种探测器将来可用于寻找被埋在遭遇地震或炸弹袭击建筑废墟中的幸存者。
     
    英国拉夫巴勒大学教授保罗·托马斯说:“这是首次针对探测废墟幸存者的传感系统展开的科学研究。”
     
    这种传感器可发现被掩埋在废墟中的生物机体呼吸、流汗和排尿等代谢活动所产生的气状副产品。
     
    搜救犬也可以被训练来探测这些化合物,但训练成本比较昂贵,需要频繁的休息期,而且在搜救过程中,动物和训练员都要冒很大的危险。
     
    托马斯表示:“这是一种不需要实验室支持就能在野外使用的设备。它能够持续很长时间监测生命存活的迹象,并可以大量布设。”
     
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    这项研究报告发表在英国物理研究所出版的《呼吸研究期刊》(Journal of Breath Research)杂志上。(来源:新华网)
     
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